Ludwig Hohlwein

Biography

The dominating figure of European poster design for three decades. A master of the advertisement poster and the political poster. Hohlwein lived through two world wars, producing memorable posters for each.

Born 27 July 1874 in Wiesbaden. 1891: began training as an architect. 1894: architectural studies at the Technical High School, Munich. At the Turin International Industrial Art Exhibition, 1902, represented by his candleholders and lamp-stands. 1903: began as a freelance interior architect ; prolific designs for furniture. 1904: represented in Munich exhibition by drawings of animals much influenced by the British ‘Beggarstaff Brothers’ (William Nicholson and James Pryde); 1905 in Greater Berlin Art Exhibition, several bought by the National Gallery. By 1906 he was producing advertising posters featuring animals and hunters. 1914: medically deferred from service, he produced many posters for the homefront. From 1920: many commissions for industry, films and tourism ; designed the Kiosk der Sektkellerei Ewald, Rüdesheim 1924: exhibition of his work sponsored by the Bund Deutscher Gebrauchsgraphiker (BDG) in the Münchner Neuen Pinakothek. 1926: monograph of his work published, text by W.F. Schubert. From 1933: member of several NSDAP organizations including Reichskulturkammer der bildenden Künste (the arm of the Nazi Party that controlled the lives and work of German artists), Volkswohlfahrt (welfare), Kameradschaft der Künstler (association of artists) attaining high position in Party and government. 1936: designed Winter Olympics poster. 1937: work exhibited in Grossen Deutschen Art Exhibition, House of German Art, Munich. July 1944: his studio destroyed in a bombing raid; in September he moved to Berchtesgaden to live in the house provided by the Kameradschaft der Künstler. After the arrival of the American Army in 1945 he produced some work for the ‘Special Service’ unit, U.S. Army, and served as an interpreter. Because of political pressure in 1946 by the local council he was unable to continue his profession. Hohlwein died 15 September 1949 in Berchtesgaden having earned deserved world recognition as one of the leading figures of early twentieth-century poster art.

A comprehensive reference is Volker Duvigneau and Norbert Götz (eds.), Ludwig Hohlwein 1874-1949, Munich/Berlin: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1996, published on the occasion of the artist’s exhibition at the Stadtmuseum, Munich, 1996.

Writings by

  • Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Jan. 1933, pp. 18-19 (note on commercial art).

Writings about

  • 1911-29: frequent appearances in Das Plakat from Jan. 1911
  • Hans Sachs, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein’, Das Plakat, May 1913, pp. 103-17 (inc. list of LH’s works) and supplement
  • Gustav E. Pazaurek, ‘Schriftplakat und Plakatschrift’, Das Plakat, July 1914, pp. 144-57
  • Georg Jakob Wolf, ‘Münchner Plakatkunst, Das Plakat, 1915, pp. 1-21
  • Heinrich Jost, ‘Kriegsgraphik’, Das Plakat, 1915, pp. 22-8
  • H.J. Möbs, ‘Der Werbemittel der Schwerindustrie’ (heavy industry), Das Plakat, Sept. 1915, pp. 173-93
  • Heinrich Jost, ‘Münchener Plakatkunst in der Krieszeit’ (wartime posters), Das Plakat, 1917, pp. 92-5
  • Das Plakat (Munich ed.), Jan. 1921 (numerous ills.)
  • Walter von Zur Westen, ‘Notentitel’, Das Plakat, March 1921, pp. 146-74, esp. pp. 170, 171
  • Walter F. Schubert, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein’ (50 th birthday), Die Reklame, May 1925, p. 491 (and cover by LH
  • LH posters, ads in supplement)
  • Walter F. Schubert, ‘Die bildmässige Anzeige’, Die Reklame, Sept. (2) 1925, pp. 996-9
  • W. Franz, ‘Das Plakat im Dienste der Verkehrswerbung’, Die Reklame, Oct. (2), 1925, pp. 1149-51, 1237
  • H.K. Frenzel, Ludwig Hohlwein, Berlin: Phönix, 1926
  • Deutscher Drucker, 1928, opp. p. 768 (adv. for printer)
  • 1930-35: Walter F. Schubert, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein’, Commercial Art, 1929, VII, pp. 157-62
  • Walter F. Schubert, Die deutsche Werbegraphik, Berlin: Francke & Lang, 1927. , 1927, (numerous illustrations)
  • Kurt Kauffmann, ‘Means of propaganda [advertising] employed by the North German Lloyd’ (shipping line), Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., 1928, v. 4, pp. 3-15
  • Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., April 1931, in ad inset at end (Norddeutscher Lloyd Bremen poster)
  • Dr Ell, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein, zum fünfundziebzigsten Geburtstag’, Graphik, 1949, 9, p. 425 ‘Ludwig Hohlwein’ Graphik, 1949, 11, pp. 509-11 Anton Sailer, ‘Ein Meister des Plakats – Ludwig Hohlwein’, Graphik 8, 1959, pp. 12-15
  • Imprimatur, 1972, p. 57 (portrait sketch of LH from Simpilicissimus, Feb. 1925)
  • H.K. Frenzel, ‘The landscape in poster art’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Dec. 1931, pp. 2-25
  • H.K. Frenzel, ‘Prof. Ludwig Hohlwein’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Jan. 1933, pp. 18-19 (posters)
  • H.K. Frenzel, ‘Back to twenty years ago’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Jan. 1934, pp. 17-32, esp. p. 24
  • Archiv für Buchgewerbe und Gebrauchsgraphik, Leipzig: Deutsche Buchgewerbeverein., 1935, 1p. in inset between pp. 252/253 (Reichsbahn poster)
  • 1936-present: Paul Pfund, ‘German advertising art 1936’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., March 1936, pp. 3-61, esp. p. 4 (poster)
  • Eberhard Hölscher, ‘The eternally young Pelican firm’ (logos, advertisements), Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., May 1956, pp. 16-25
  • Hellmut Rademacher, Das deutsche Plakat. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, Dresden: VEB Verlag der Kunst, 1965., 1965, pp. 122-5, 199, 226, 232
  • Hellmut Rademacher, Deutsche Plakatkunst und ihre Meister, Hanau: Verlag Werner Dausien, 1965., 1965, pp. 23-5 and illust.
  • Hans Baumeister, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein 1874-1949’ (centenary), novum, June 1974, pp. 32-43
  • Ludwig Hohlwein: Plakate der Jahre 1906-40 (exh. cat.), Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie, and Deutsches Plakatmuseum, Essen, 1985
  • Peter Weiss, ‘“München leuchtete” auch im kleinen Format’, Graphik, 1985, 6, pp. 44-8
  • SP, 1991
  • Lothar Lang, ‘Alternatives Sammeln: Wirtshausgraphik’, Marginalien, 1993, no. 130, pp. 88-91 (wine list cover)
  • Volker Duvigneau and Norbert Götz (eds.), Ludwig Hohlwein, Kunstgewerbe und Reklamekunst (exh. cat.), Munich: Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1996
  • Herbert Lechner, ‘Ludwig Hohlwein’ (note on the Munich exh.), in Graphis, Nov./Dec., 1996, p. 12
  • Meggs, 1998
  • JA, 2000, esp. pp. 134-5
  • Benezit, 2006
  • www.travelbrochuregraphics.com.
  • Zeitschrift für Bücherfreunde , 1922, in supplement: Kiosk der Sektkellerei Ewald, Rüdesheim
  • H.K. Frenzel, ’25 years of [the] German poster’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., 1925, no. 4, Jhrg. 2, pp. 1-46, esp. pp. 17, 25 H. Bermann, ‘Twenty years of “PKZ”’ (men’s clothier), Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., 1928, v. 1, pp. 18-31
  • ‘Result of the poster competition for the Chicago World Exhibition’ (World’s Fair), Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., July 1930, pp. 52-7
  • H.K. Frenzel, ‘The “Neue Vereinigung Münchner Plakat-Kunstler”’ (League of Munich Poster Artists), Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Aug. 1931, pp. 2-9
  • Werner Suhr, ‘Es ist an der Zeit…’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Aug. 1931, pp. 10-25, esp. p. 12
  • Jan. Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Jan. 1932, p. 41 (packaging)
  • Werner Suhr, ‘German railroads advertise’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., March 1933, pp. 2-13, esp. p. 12
  • H.K. Frenzel, ‘Professor Ludwig Hohlwein 60 Jahre’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., July 1934, pp. 2-11 plus 4 colour insets, plus covers
  • Walter Hofmann, ‘Die Entwicklung der Deutschen Werbegraphik’, Archiv für Buchgewerbe und Gebrauchsgraphik, Leipzig: Deutsche Buchgewerbeverein., 1939, after p. 639 (wrapper)
  • E. Hölscher, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., Jan. 1959, pp. 14-21 (Gg covers)
  • Volker Duvigneau, ‘Hohlwein posters from 1906 to 1914’, Gebrauchsgraphik (International Advertising Art), Berlin: Phönix Illustrationsdruck und Verlag GmbH (later: ‘Gebrauchsgraphik’ Druck und Verlag GmbH), 1933-71. Published from Munich from 1950., May 1970, pp. 22-9
  • Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, Munich, London, New Providence: K.G. Saur 1995- (from 1997: Munich only)., 1997
  • Michael Fehr and Gerhard Storck, Deutsches Museum für Kunst in Handel und Gewerbe 1909-1919 (exh. cat.), Kaiser Wilhelm Museum Krefeld and Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum der Stadt Hagen, publisher: Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon, Ghent, 1997., 1997 (see ‘Plakate’ index)

Exhibitions

  • Museum für Deutsche Geschichte, Berlin, 1957 (group)
  • Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, and Deutsches Plakatmuseum, Essen, 1985
  • Stadtmuseum, Munich, 1996.