Born in 1900 in Horodenka, Poland (Galicia). 1923: began architectural studies in Czechoslovakia. 1928: received his degree from the Technische Hochschule, Berlin. 1934: emigrated to Palestine. 1935-60: taught lettering at the New Bezalel Academy of Arts and Crafts. Designed lettering for Israel’s currency. Died 4 November 1989.
- Calligraphy Review, Spring 1990, pp. 4-5 (obituary). ,